Dvaita, also known as Bheda-vâda, Tattva-vâda, and Bimba-pratibimba-vâda, is the doctrine propounded by Ananda Tîrtha (1238-1317) that asserts that the difference between the individual soul or jîva, and the Creator, or Îshvara, is eternal and real. Actually, this is just one of the five differences that are so stated -- all five differences that constitute the universe are eternal. The five are given by:

        jiiveshvara bhidA chaiva jaDeshvara bhidA tathA    |
        jiiva-bhedo mithashchaiva jaDa-jiiva-bhidA tathA   |
        mithashcha jaDa-bhedo.ayam prapaJNcho bheda-pa.nchakaH    ||
                                            -- paramashruti
"The difference between the jîva (soul) and Îshvara (Creator), and the difference between jaDa (insentient) and Îshvara; and the difference between various jîvas, and the difference between jaDa and jîva; and the difference between various jaDas, these five differences make up the universe."

From the Paramopanishad a.k.a. Parama-shruti, as quoted by Ananda Tîrtha in his 'VishNu-tattva-vinirNaya'

This is the reason why some refer to the doctrine of Tattvavâda (the preferred name) as 'Dvaita'. However, 'Dvaita' is thought to be inadequately representative of the true grain of Tattvavâda.

The doctrine of Tattvavâda is considered to be eternal (in a flow-like sense, just as Creation is eternal); in historical times, it was revived by Ananda Tîrtha, who is also known as Madhvâchârya. Because of this, followers of Tattvavâda are called Mâdhvas, meaning followers of Madhva.

For some details about these, refer the Dvaita FAQ.

The organization of the Dvaita Home Page

The Dvaita Home Page has been organized in a manner to help those with no previous exposure to Tattvavâda, as well as those with a sound knowledge of it, find their way through it with ease. The page has the following major subdivisions:

Ananda Tîrtha

This is the front-page of the section that deals with Sriman Madhvâchârya -- his biography, his works, and his special significance as the third incarnation of Mukhya PrâNa, the god of life.

Specifically, you may like to visit the sub-section that deals with Udupi -- there is a fairly extensive description of the place itself, its history, the Krishna temple, the kinds of worship practiced there, Kanaka Dâsa, etc.

Scholars of Tattvavâda

This is the section that deals with some of the other major scholars who followed in the footsteps of Srimad Ananda Tîrtha in propounding Tattvavâda.

In particular, do not miss seeing the web pages of Srî Vâdirâja Tîrtha and Srî Râghavendra Tîrtha.

Source Texts

In order to make the Dvaita web resources more useful to those interested in serious study of Tattvavâda rather than just to casual surfers and beginners, we have made serious efforts to create and deploy downloadable texts of major, hard to find works. These include the Mahâbhârata-Tâtparya-Nirnaya, the E-Book of which carries a blessing from the late H.H. Srî Srî Palimâr Swâmîjî. These texts are all in the widely-used PDF format, and need Acrobat Reader to view/print. See here for general tips on downloading &c.

The website http://www.dvaita.net has been specially acquired as an addendum to this one, for the exclusive purpose of hosting source texts. It is being supported by a different ISP than the dvaita.org facilities which will be continued as at present. The new site should allow for much faster downloads than at present. We therefore suggest that http://www.dvaita.net be preferred for downloads even where the material is duplicated (which will not be often).


This section leads into several viewable (and in some cases, downloadable) stotra-s (hymns in praise of Vishnu or His servants) of interest to Mâdhvas -- many with transliterations and/or translations. Some shloka-s listed here are rather hard to find in print.

Doctrinal issues

This section, still under construction, will present some writings concerning specific points of interest in Tattvavâda. Please see the Dvaita FAQ before reading this section.

In order to combat the false preachment by some in Madhva's name, and to illustrate correctly the positions of Madhva on the Bhagavad Gita, we have created a section on the Bhagavad Gita. This includes the Gîtâ Sâroddhâra of H.H. Srî Pejâvara Swâmîjî. We also have some discussion of a few specific verses such as II-13 where the existence of a soul apart from the body is established, and X-41 where the common misinterpretation of the Bhâgavata Purâna's kR^ishhNastu bhagavAn.h svayam.h as meaning "Krishna is the original Form," (with other forms of Vishnu being somehow not so) is rejected. Last but not least, be sure not to miss out on our critical review of Prabhupada's "Bhagavad Gita As It Is."


This, as the name suggests, contains a bibliographical index of references to published Tattvavâda works. Separate, smaller bibliographies relating to specific individuals may be found on pages devoted to them -- if such exist -- but this larger bibliography has all of them, and also has some references to works that are not mentioned on any other page. This section is currently under revision, and is not yet comprehensive enough to be very useful to be an aid in looking for specific works, but may still be of some value.

Miscellaneous items

This page heads into links with information of interest to Mâdhvas, that often do not seem to fit into any of the previous categories.   You may be interested in the list of Ekâdashî-s for this year, or in our list of other links.

Navigating within the Dvaita Home Page

At the bottom of each screen within the Dvaita page (except the front-page), one can see the following menu-bar:

This bar may be used conveniently to move to any desired location, without the need to laboriously re-trace one's steps. If at any time one is lost and does not know how to get to a specific page, one can always move in one step to the front-page, or to this page, for instance, which may be familiar landmarks.

General notes

As suggested before, the Dvaita FAQ is a good place to start, if one has no previous exposure to Tattvavâda and wishes some specific answers.

If you are interested in being part of an e-mail discussion group devoted to discussing Tattvavâda, see our documentation.

If you wish to contribute material for the Dvaita Home Page, please send mail to info -at- dvaita.net to arrange for the transfer. Material that is copyrighted by other persons or agencies than yourself cannot be accepted unless you have permission to give it to us. We reserve the right to screen submissions for quality.

Transliterations of Sanskrit words and expressions on the Dvaita Home Page should generally be intelligible in most cases to those knowing Sanskrit, but unfortunately, owing to the inherent limitations of the Roman alphabet, and the impossibility of using diacritical marks along with the standard ASCII character-set, it is not possible to ensure a completely satisfactory transliteration scheme. Transliterations of whole shloka-s generally follow the ITRANS scheme, which seems to be most popular on the Net. Also, since essays on the Dvaita Home Page are written by different people, there are internal differences in some cases.

Feedback to the maintainers of the Dvaita Home Page may be sent to the address info -at- dvaita.net, or, if your browser is forms-capable, by using the response form. Both options are available from the cover page.

Created March 13, 1996; last modified October 07, 2006