Sri Raghavendra Tirtha's
Mahabharata-Tatparya-Nirnaya Bhava-Sangraha

If it be acknowledged that Acarya Madhva's summary of the entire Mahabharata is itself a work of uncommon skill and comprehension, then it must also be acknowledged that an attempt to summarize the Acarya's work in a manner easily accessible to lay folk with little capacity and no training, is also very difficult. This latter task has, however, been carried out with aplomb by the renowned Sri Raghavendra Tirtha, who captures the essential aspects of each chapter of the Mahabharata-Tatparya-Nirnaya in one verse. We hereby present the following as an introduction to this grand text by one qualified to make it. (Errors in transcription, translation, etc., are however solely our fault.)

The first chapter of the 'Tatparya-Nirnaya is called ``Sarvasastratatparyanirnayah'' (decision of the purport of all sastra), and a summary of its contents is the following sloka by Sri Raghavendra Swami.

yo'gre'bhudvisvagarbhah sukhanidhiramitaih vasudevadirupaih
kridan devairajadyaih aganitasuguno nityanicoccabhavaih |
vedairvedyo'stadoso'pyasurajanamano mohayan martyavrttya
bhaktanam muktidata dvisadasukhakarah patu so'sman ramesah
$\Vert$ 1 $\Vert$

(The Lord who) existed before the world;
(The Lord who) has the entire universe in His womb;
(The Lord who) is the repository of infinite bliss;
(The Lord who) takes forms such as Vasudeva;
(The Lord who) plays with the gods of limited power such as Brahma,
who have eternal gradations among themselves;
(The Lord who) has countless auspicious qualities;
(The Lord who) is known by the Vedas;
(The Lord who) is flawless, but shows His forms as if flawed,
thereby deluding demonic humans;
(The Lord who) rescues the devoted from hell and deaths,
giving them eternal bliss in His company;
(The Lord who) gives sorrow to the ungrateful rebel;
May this Lord of Rama protect us.

The second chapter is called ``Bharatavakyoddharah'' (upliftment of the statements of the 'Bharata), and is summarized in the following sloka.

sadgranthanam samuhe jagati vilulite yena tadbhavamuccaih
vaktum madhvo niyukto vyadhita suvacasamuddhrtim bharatasya |
vedotkrstasya visnoh paramapurusatam taratamyam suranam
vayorjivottamatvadikamapi vadatam vyasamide tamisam
$\Vert$ 2 $\Vert$

On this Earth, the great works were mutilated and disarrayed;
Sri Madhvacarya, as commanded by Lord Vedavyasa,
composed the Mahabharata-tatparyanirnaya
to explain the meaning of these works with a commentary.
Drawing verses from the Mahabharata itself,
Sri Madhvacarya shows
the Supremacy of Lord Visnu (who is extolled in the Vedas above all),
the supremacy of Vayu among other deites (except for Laksmi and Brahma),
the limited and varying powers of the other gods, and the hierarchy of souls.
I worship this Lord Vedavyasa, who ordered
Sri Madhvacarya to undertake such a task.

N.B. It may be asked why a work such as the Mahabharata-Tatparya-Nirnaya is even needed when the Mahabharata itself serves to explain its own meaning. The answer is that that great work has been distorted greatly (cf. verses 3, et. seq. of the second chapter), and other texts of its genre have also nearly disappeared, making it impossible for the average person to make philological and philosophical determinations of its total purport. Therefore, as commanded by the author of the Mahabharata Himself, the great Acarya undertook the task of writing a text that would rescue the deserving seeker from the morass of ignorance and uncertainty. See the commentary of Sri Vadiraja Tirtha on II-3 for details.

The third chapter is called ``Sarganusargalayapradurbhavanirnayah (decision of the creation, meta-creation, destruction, and appearance), and is summarized in the following sloka.

adau rupacatustayim srjati yo devan puranukramat
brahmandam puramabjajadivibudhan srstva haratyantatah |
srasta purvavadasya sarvajagato matsyadirupairbhavan
ramo'bhudanujanvito dasarathat payat sa nah sripatih
$\Vert$ 3 $\Vert$

(The Lord who) assumed four forms before Creation
(the forms of Aniruddha, Pradyumna, Sankarsana, and Vasudeva);
(The Lord who) creates all of the gods
according to their respective natures;
(The Lord who) creates the universe
as the dwelling-place of other gods such as Brahma;
(The Lord who) annihilates creation again and again,
then again creates and again sustains it,
incarnating in various forms (such as Matsya the fish);
(The Lord who) incarnated as Lord Rama through King Dasaratha,
along with His younger brothers;
May this Lord Rama protect us.

The fourth chapter is called ``Sriramacarite Ayodhyapravesah'' (in Sri Rama's story, the entrance into Ayodhya), and is summarized in the following sloka:

yadvrddhirjanamohini mudamita yaddarsanatsajjanah
yenarsipriyakarina nisicarihantra kratu raksitah |
yo'halyam sapatim vyadhat haradhanurbhanktva'vahajjanakim
jeta vartmani bhargavasya nagarim ramo gato'vyatsa mam
$\Vert$ 4 $\Vert$

(The Lord who) pretended to show himself growing up as a child
to delude the undeserving, while His darsana gave enormous
joy to His devotees;
(The Lord who) pleased the sage (Visvamitra) by His acts, such as
killing the demon Tataka and protecting the sacred
(The Lord who) sanctified Ahalya Devi along with her husband
Gautama Muni, removing her curse and uniting her
with her husband;
(The Lord who) broke the mighty bow of Siva;
(The Lord who) married Sita Devi;
(The Lord who) pretended to conquer one of His own incarnations,
Lord Parasurama;
(The Lord who) returned to His kingdom;
May this Lord Rama protect me.

The fifth chapter is called ``Sriramacarite Hanumaddarsanam'' (in Sri Rama's story, the sighting of Hanuman), and is summarized in the following sloka:

tyaktva rajyamito vanam vacanato matusca kakaksigam
daityam vyasya vikarnaghonakhacaribandhun kharadin khalan |
maricam ca nihatya ravanahrtam sitam vicinvanniva
prapto vayusutena suryajayuja ramo'vatadvanditah
$\Vert$ 5 $\Vert$

(The Lord who) renounced His kingdom and went to the forest
to fulfill the promise given by His father Dasaratha
to His stepmother Kaikeyi;
(The Lord who) killed the demon present in the eye of the crow;
(The Lord who) killed all of the demons such as Khara, Maricha, and
other relatives of the demoness Surpanakha (whose ears
and nose were cut by Laksmana);
(The Lord who) pretended to search for Sita Devi when she was abducted
by the demon-king Ravana;
May this Lord Rama, reached and served by the son-of-Vayu (Hanuman)
and the son-of-Surya (Sugriva), protect us.

The sixth chapter is called ``Samudratarananiscayah'' (decision to cross the sea), and is summarized in the following sloka.

sugrivena sakhitvamapya sapatham krtva vadhe valinah
talan saptavibhidya valinidhanam krtva svarajye sthitam |
martandim ca vidhaya marutiyuja yamyam disam gacchata
sitanvesanamicchatabdhitarane ramo'vatat samstutah
$\Vert$ 6 $\Vert$

(The Lord who) graced Sugriva with His friendship;
(The Lord who) took a vow to kill Vali;
(The Lord who) demonstrated His strength to Sugriva by felling seven
palm trees with a single arrow;
(The Lord who) killed Vali;
(The Lord who) installed Sugriva as king in the kingdom of monkeys;
(The Lord who) made Maruti go south, crossing the ocean to
search for Sita;
(The Lord who) is praised and meditated upon always (by Maruti);
May this Lord protect us.

The seventh chapter is known as ``Hanumatpratiyanam'' (Hanuman's return journey), and is summarized in the following sloka.

yasya srihanumananugrahabalat tirnambudhih lilaya
lankam prapya nisamya ramadayitam bhanktva vanam raXasan |
aksadin vinihatya viksya dasakam dagdhva purim tam punah
tirnabdhih kapibhiryuto yamanamattam ramacandram bhaje
$\Vert$ 7 $\Vert$

I worship Lord Ramacandra,
By whose grace Sri Hanuman crossed the ocean easily;
(By whose grace Sri Hanuman) reached Lanka;
(By whose grace Sri Hanuman) found Sita;
(By whose grace Sri Hanuman) demolished the Asokavana;
(By whose grace Sri Hanuman) saw the ten-headed Ravana;
(By whose grace Sri Hanuman) burned the Lankapuri;
(By whose grace Sri Hanuman) again crossed the ocean;
(By whose grace Sri Hanuman) returned and bowed to Him.

N.B. In many texts, the seventh chapter is referred to as ``Sundarakandakathanirupanam'' (the statement of the story of the Sundarakanda), a name obviously derived from the comparison of its story with the relevant part of the Valmiki Ramayana, a text that however is not considered canonical or quoted from by the Acarya himself or by prominent figures in his tradition. Other such late variations in chapter names are also found.

The eighth chapter is called ``Hanumati Sriramadayadanam'' (the gift of Sri Rama's compassion to Hanuman), and is summarized in the following sloka.

sindhum daksinamagato dasamukhabhratristado'bdhyarthito
badhva setumavapya raksasapurim sainyaih kapinam yutah |
hatven.drarikarirakarnadasakadin raksasan janakim
adayapya purim svarajyapadavim prapto'vatadraghavah
$\Vert$ 8 $\Vert$

May Lord Raghava, who arrived at the southern ocean;
(The Lord who) pleased Vibhisana, the brother of ten-headed Ravana,
by giving him refuge and promising him the kingdom of Lanka;
(The Lord who) built the bridge to Lanka as requested by the god of
the ocean;
(The Lord who) reached Lanka;
(The Lord who) accompanied by the armies of the monkeys, killed the
demons (such as Indrajit, Kumbhakarna, Ravana, and others);
(The Lord who) brought Janaki to, and procured the crown of,
His own kingdom;
(May this Lord) protect us.

The ninth chapter is called ``Ramasvadhamapravesah'' (Rama's entry into His own abode), and is summarized in the following sloka.

praptah samrajyalaksmim priyatamabharatam yauvarajyo'bhisicya
sviyan raksan sutau dvau janakaduhitari prapya yajñairyajan svam |
sitahetorvimohya ksitijaditisutanarthito devasanghaih
sadbhiryukto hanumadvarada upagatah svam padam patu Ramah
$\Vert$ 9 $\Vert$

Lord Rama, who obtained His own kingdom;
(The Lord who) coronated His dearest Bharata as crown prince;
(The Lord who) protected His own devotees;
(The Lord who) begat two sons (Lava and Kusa), from Janaki Devi;
(The Lord who) performed sacred sacrifices unto Himself (as an example);
(The Lord who) deluded the evil-minded demons by pretending to
abandon Sita Devi;
(The Lord who) reached His own abode, as requested by the gods and
accompanied by the good beings;
May this Lord, boon-giver to Hanuman, protect us.

The tenth chapter is called ``Vyasavataranuvarnanam'' (description of the avatara of Vyasa) and is summarized in the following sloka.

ksirabdhyunmathanadikatmacaritam devairgrnadbhih stutah
sajñanaya parasarakhyamunina yah satyavtyamabhut |
vyasatvena vidhaya vedavivrtim sastrani sarvanyapi
jñanam satsu nidhaya sadgatakalim nighnan sa no'vyadharih
$\Vert$ 10 $\Vert$

Lord Hari, who was extolled (even) by gods for His glories;
(Lord Hari who) removed obstacles and helping to churn the ocean of milk
(Lord Hari who) is praised by the gods for establishing correct knowledge;
(Lord Hari who) incarnated as Vedavyasa in Satyavati through
Parasara Muni;
(Lord Hari, who as Vedavyasa) established the classification of the Vedas;
(Lord Hari, who as Vedavyasa) authored many sastras
(such as the Brahma-Sutras and Mahabharata);
(Lord Hari, who as Vedavyasa) imparts right knowledge in good people;
(Lord Hari, who as Vedavyasa) destroyed the evil Kali present in the
hearts of good people;
May Sri Hari, this Vedavyasatmaka, protect us.

The eleventh chapter is called ``Bhagavadavatarapratijña'' (the Lord's vow to incarnate), and is summarized in the following sloka.

bhupa yatra pururavah prabhrtayo jata vidhoranvaye
yadvadya bharatadayah kurumukha bhismambikeyadayah |
bhubharaksayakanksibhih suravarairabhyarthitah sripatih
tatravirbhavitum sahamaravarairicchan harih patu mam
$\Vert$ 11 $\Vert$

Lord Hari, who wished to incarnate at the desire of eminent gods
(such as Brahma and Siva) to relieve the sin-burdened Earth;
Lord Hari, who incarnated along with the eminent gods of the clan
of the Moon (where kings such as Pururava, Yadu, Bharata, Kuru,
and others like Bhisma and Dhrtarastra were born);
to relieve the sin-burdened earth;
May this Lord, who is the consort of Laksmi, protect me.

The twelfth chapter is called ``Pandavotpattih'' (the Pandavas' advent), and is summarized in the following sloka.

devakyam vasudevato'grajayuto jato vrajam yo gato
balaghnisakataksaha svajananimanyastrnavartaha |
yatpurvam paratasca pandutanaya yatsevanam jajñire
kartum dharmamarudvrsasvina imam namdatmajam naumi tam
$\Vert$ 12 $\Vert$

(Lord Krsna, who) was born to Devaki and Vasudeva
along with His elder brother (Balarama);
(Lord Krsna who) went to ``Nandavraja'';
(Lord Krsna who) killed Putana the infant-killer
and Sakatasura the bullock cart demon;
(Lord Krsna who) is very dear to His mother Yasoda;
(Lord Krsna) before and after whose advent Yama, Vayu, Indra and
the Asvinis were born as sons of Pandu
with a desire to serve the Lord;
I bow to this Lord Krsna, the son of Nanda.

The thirteenth chapter is called ``Kamsavadhah'' (the slaying of Kamsa), and is summarized in the following sloka.

samskaran prapya gargat bahusisucaritaih prinayan gopagopih
vatsan dhenusca raksanahipatidamano yah papau kananagnim |
viprastripritikari dhrtadharanidharo gopikabhirnisasu
kridan mallamsca kamsam nyahanadupagato'vyatsa krsnahpurim svam
$\Vert$ 13 $\Vert$

(Lord Krsna, who) obtained samskaras (such as jatakarma and
namakarana) from Gargacarya;
(Lord Krsna, who) pleased the gopas and gopis
with His many amazing childhood exploits;
(Lord Krsna, who) protected cows and calves;
(Lord Krsna, who) subdued Kaliya the serpent-king;
(Lord Krsna, who) drank the wild fire;
(Lord Krsna, who) pleased the brahmana women
by consuming their offering of food;
(Lord Krsna, who) carried the Govardhana mountain;
(Lord Krsna, who) frolicked with gopikas in the nights to grace them;
(Lord Krsna, who) killed the wrestlers (such as Chanura);
(Lord Krsna, who) killed the demon Kamsa
upon returning to His own birthplace;
May this Lord, Sri Krsna, protect us.

The fourteenth chapter is called ``Uddhavapratiyanam'' (Uddhava's return), and is summarized in the following sloka.

pitrorbandham nirasya ksitipatimakarodugrasenam guroryah
putram pradatparetam yudhi vijitajarasamdhapurvarivargah |
parthan pitra vihinanupagatanagaran yastvajo'padvipadbhyah
nandadinuddhavoktya gatavirahasucah karayan so'vatanmam
$\Vert$ 14 $\Vert$

(Lord Krsna, who) released the prison-fetters of His parents;
(Lord Krsna, who) anointed King Ugrasena;
(Lord Krsna, who) brought back the son of his teacher (Sandipani) back from the dead;
(Lord Krsna, who) defeated Jarasandha and other enemies on the battlefield;
(Lord Krsna, who) protected the fatherless Pandava refugees
returning to their home city;
(Lord Krsna, who) removed the sorrow and pains of separation,
experienced by Nanda and others, through the message to Uddhava;
May this birthless Lord protect us.

The fifteenth chapter is called ``Pandavasastrabhyasah'' (the Pandavas' practicing of using weaponry), and is summarized in the following sloka.

yasmat vyasasvarupadapi viditasuvidya avapuh pramodam
partha dronah sutartham pratigatabhrgupo yanniyatyarthakamah |
tasmadaptoruvidyo drupadamupagato'naptakamo'stravidyah
sisyebhyah kauravebhyo ravijanirasano'datsano'vyanmurarih
$\Vert$ 15 $\Vert$

(Lord Vedavyasa) from whom the Pandavas became very happy
upon acquiring precious knowledge;
(Lord Vedavyasa) by whose will Drona approached Parasurama
obtained the great knowledge of arms; then,
desiring wealth for the sake of his son (Asvatthama);
approached the king Drupada but was rejected and insulted;
who thereupon gave knowledge of arms to all of the Kauravas (and Pandavas);
but did not instruct Karna (as he was not a ksatriya);
May this Lord Murari protect us.

The sixteenth chapter is called ``Srgala-vadhah'' (the slaying of Srgala) and is summarized in the following sloka.

bhuyastvagatamahave saha jarasandham nrpairnitaye
jñatva yassahajanvito'tigahanam gomantamatragatat |
tarksyallabdhakirita unnata gireraplutya jitva ripun
hatva sviyasrgalamatmanagarim praptah sa no'vyaddharih
$\Vert$ 16 $\Vert$

(Lord Krsna) came to know that Jarasandha, accompanied by the kings,
returned to wage war with Krsna and His men;
(Lord Krsna) went with his brother to densely wild Gomanta mountain;
(Lord Krsna) regained His crown from Garuda in Gomanta;
(Lord Krsna) jumped from the tall mountain and defeated His enemies;
(Lord Krsna) killed Srgala Vasudeva and returned to Mathura, His town;
May that Lord Hari protect us.

The seventeenth chapter is known as ``Hamsadibhakavadhah'' (the slaying of Hamsa and Dibhaka'') and is summarized in the following sloka.

bhagnasan nrpatinarin vyadhita yah svargadhipagryasane
lagno bhismakasatkrto'tha yavanam jaghne satimatmanah |
nighnam yo'krta rukminim samajayaddurgarvirukmyadikan
vighnam satrajidatmajapatirasau me ghnan bhavetsarvada
$\Vert$ 17 $\Vert$

(The Lord who) shattered the hopes of enemy kings by routing them;
(The Lord who) was seated on the throne of Indra, king of heaven,
and greatly honored by Bhismaka (the father of Rukmini);
(The Lord who) killed the demon Yavana;
(The Lord who) made the ever-serving Rukmini His consort;
(The Lord who) conquered the highly haughty Rukmi and others;
May this Lord, consort of Satyabhama, be always the Destroyer
of my obstacles.

The eighteenth chapter is called ``Bhimarjunadigvijayah'' (the victories of Bhima and Arjuna in all directions), and is summarized in the following sloka.

astrajñesvadhiko'rjuno'tha yadanukrosena bhimam vina
saddharme niratam dadau svagurave badhva nrpam prarsatam |
putrau sa drupado'pi vahnivibudhat strirupakam praptavan
istam dharmaja apa rajyapadavim sa priyatam me harih
$\Vert$ 18 $\Vert$

By whose grace, Arjuna became the greatest among those who
knew the astravidya (except Bhima, who was steadfast in dharma);
(By whose grace) Arjuna imprisoned the king Drupada;
and turned over to his teacher Dronacarya;
(By whose grace) Drupada took from the deity of the sacrificial
fire two children: a son (Dhrstadyumna) and a daughter (Draupadi);
(By whose grace) Dharmaraja obtained his desired kingdom (Varanavata);
May this Lord Hari be pleased with me.

The nineteenth chapter is called ``Pandavarajyalabhah'' (the Pandavas' gain of a kingdom), and is summarized in the following sloka.

yatkarunyabalena pandutanaya nistirya nanapado
bhiksannasina agamabhyasanino hatva bakam draupadim |
udvahyakhilabhupatinapi rane jitvagatah svam purim
indraprasthapure'vasan krtadhararaksah sa no'vyaddharih
$\Vert$ 19 $\Vert$

(By the strength of the Lord by whose grace) the Pandavas
overcame many hardships
(such as eating the food obtained as alms,
poison, fire, and other adversities);
studied the Vedas and other sacred scriptures,
killed Bakasura;
married Draupadi;
defeated the enemy kings in the battle at Draupadi's svayamvara;
returned to their city and
protected the kingdom of Indrapastha;
May that Lord Hari protect us.

The twentieth chapter is called ``Khandavadahah'' (the burning of the Khandava) and is summarized in the following sloka.

yah parthan paripalayan haripure striputrasampadyutan
samharta satadhanvano'stamahisibharta surarsistutah |
hatva bhaumamapaharatsuratarum bahviruvahanganah
prayacchaddharisunave svasahajam payatsa nah kesavah
$\Vert$ 20 $\Vert$

(Lord Kesava, who) protected the Pandavas
as they lived in Indraprastha with their wives and children;
(Lord Kesava, who) blessed them with prosperity;
(Lord Kesava, who) killed Satadhanva;
(Lord Kesava, who) is the husband of the astamahisi-s;
(Lord Kesava, who) was extolled by Narada, sage of the gods;
(Lord Kesava, who) killed the demon Naraka;
(Lord Kesava, who) married the sixteen thousand, one hundred women
imprisoned by Naraka;
(Lord Kesava, who) brought over the heavenly parijata tree;
(Lord Kesava, who) gave His own sister Subhadra in marriage
to Arjuna, the son of Indra;
May this Lord Kesava protect us.

The twenty-first chapter is called ``Pandava-vanapravesah'' (the Pandavas' exile to the forest), and is summarized in the following sloka.

parthan labdhasabhan vidhaya mayatah praptah puram svam gatah
ksetram kauravamarkaparvani purim samprapya karta kratoh |
pandun prapya jarasute vinihate taih karayitva'dhvaram
praptah svam puramacyuto vijayate dyute jitaisca smrtah
$\Vert$ 21 $\Vert$

(The Lord who) led the Pandavas to acquire the wonderful assembly room
through the heavenly sculptor Maya,
(The Lord who) reached Dvaraka, went to Kuruksetra on the same day
(a suryagrahana) and returned to Dvaraka
in time to perform a sacred sacrifice;
(The Lord who) by visiting the Pandavas again,
caused Jarasandha to die at the hand of Bhima;
(The Lord who) made the Pandavas perform the Rajasuya;
(The Lord who) returned to Dvaraka again;
That never diminishing and ever complete Lord Acyuta,
who was remembered by Pandavas defeated in the gambling
-- is always victorious.

The twenty-second chapter is called ``Aranipraptih'' (the reaching of the forest), and is summarized in the following sloka.

parthah yata aranyam nihatanisicarah prinayanto dvijaughan
vartam srutva svakiyamupagataharina manita sindhurajam |
jitva duryodhanadin harihayapurusavratabaddhanvimocya
prapta dharmaprasadam yamatha madhuripum tustuvustam prapadye
$\Vert$ 22 $\Vert$

I humbly seek refuge in Lord Madhusudana, whom
the Pandavas pleased with their service;
(the Pandavas) went to the forest;
(the Pandavas) killed demons such as Kirmira;
(the Pandavas) pleased many saints and sages with the royal food
procured from the Aksayapatra;
(the Pandavas) were consoled by their dear Hari, who went to them
on hearing the news of their vanavasa;
(the Pandavas) defeated Jayadratha, king of Sindhu;
(the Pandavas) humiliated Duryodhana
by freeing him from the armies of the Gandharvas;
(the Pandavas) obtained the grace of Yamadharmaraja, as
Yudhisthira answered the questions asked by Yama,
who appeared in the guise of a Yaksa.

The twenty-third chapter is called ``Ajñatavasasamaptih'' (the ending of the incognito stay), and is summarized in the following sloka.

anyam vesamupagatah prthagito gatva viratalayam
taddehasthaharernisevanapara mallam tatha kicakan |
hatva gograhanodyatanapi kurun jitva viratarcitah
parthah svantikamagatam yamajitam bhejustamide'cyutam
$\Vert$ 23 $\Vert$

The Pandavas went in disguise separately to the palace of King Virata,
so as not to arouse suspicion;
and dedicated themselves to the service of Lord Hari
as present in King Virata's body;
Bhima killed the wrestler (who had the boon from Siva);
(Bhima) killed Kichaka, and Kichaka's five-and-a-hundred younger brothers;
The Pandavas vanquished the Kauravas
who came to steal the cows of King Virata;
after their incognito was over, (the Pandavas) were worshipped
by King Virata;
(The Pandavas) served Lord Hari who came there;
I extoll that invincible Lord Acyuta.

The twenty-fourth chapter is called ``Yuddhodyogah'' (the preparation for war), and is summarized in the following sloka.

yatsammatya prsatatanujapresitabrahmanoktya
rajyam nadadanujajanitasyambikeyo'rjunasya |
yah sahayyam vyadhita nagarim kauravanamavaptah
svokte krsnastadanabhimate'vaptaparthah sa no'vyat
$\Vert$ 24 $\Vert$

By the approval of Lord Krsna, King Drupada
sent a message through a brahmana to Dhrtarastra,
who did not abdicate the rule which rightfully belonged
to the sons of his younger brother;
Lord Krsna, offering to help Arjuna, went to Hastinapuri
with a peace message which the sons of Dhrtarastra rejected;
May this Lord, who helped the Pandavas, protect us.

The twenty-fifth chapter is called ``Bhismapatah'' (the fall of Bhisma), and is summarized in the following sloka.

senam viksya ranonmukhe karunaya sastrojjhitam phalgunam
sadgitamupadisya karmukadharam cakre'sya yah sarathih |
anyonyam kurupandavaisca prtanam yo'jighanatsyandanat
yo bhismam nirapatayat sutasaraih pandostamide'cyutam
$\Vert$ 25 $\Vert$

Lord Acyuta preached the correct philosophy,
in the form of the Bhagavad Gita, to Arjuna;
for, Arjuna abandoned the bow and arrows on the verge of the battle
as he was overcome with compassion and grief
upon seeing the opposing army consisting of his teachers
(such as Dronacarya and Krpacarya) and elders (Bhisma)
and other relatives;
(Lord Achyuta) led Arjuna to take up the bow and arrows to begin
the battle, as He took up the role of charioteer to this Arjuna;
Lord Acyuta made both Kauravas and Pandavas kill each others' armies;
Lord Acyuta made Bhisma fall from his chariot
from the arrows cast by the son of Pandu;
I extoll that never diminishing and ever complete Lord Acyuta.

The twenty-sixth chapter is called ``Narayanastropasamanam'' (the pacification of the Narayanastra) and is summarized in the following sloka.

drone yudhyati pandavairvinihatam pragjyotisam parthatah
krtva tasya sute hate nisi sivam nitvarjunam saindhavam |
taddattastrabaladajighanadato drone hate draupadeh
yo bhimam ca nijastranamramakarottam naumi narayanam
$\Vert$ 26 $\Vert$

(Lord Narayana) made Arjuna kill Bhagadatta,
the king of Pragjyotisa and the son of Narakasura,
as Drona was fighting with the Pandavas;
When Arjuna's son, Abhimanyu, was killed,
(the Lord) took Arjuna to Siva in the night,
and, from the strength of an arrow given by him,
He made Arjuna kill Saindhava (Jayadratha);
When Drona was killed by Dhrstadyumna, the Lord made Bhima pay
respect to the Narayanastra (discharged by Asvatthama);
I bow to this Lord Narayana.

The twenty-seventh chapter is called ``Karnavadhah'' (the slaying of Karna), and is summarized in the following sloka.

yatsamarthyabalena suryatanuje parthena yuddhe jite
pascacchalyamavapya sarathivaram dharmatmajam sayakaih |
sirna ngam krtavatyamum sibiragam partham ca mrtyorapat
yah parthena hate'rkaje nrpanutah payatsa nah kesavah
$\Vert$ 27 $\Vert$

Arjuna defeated Karna in the battlefield
by the strength of Lord Kesava's grace;
After this, Karna secured Salya as his good and efficient charioteer;
With his arrows, Karna badly wounded the limbs of Dharmaraja
who retreated to his tent;
Lord Krsna saved Dharmaraja, and Arjuna also, from death;
When Arjuna killed Karna, the Lord was praised by Dharmaraja
for all He had done;
may this Lord Kesava protect us.

The twenty-eighth chapter is called ``Pandavarajyalabhah'' (the Pandavas' gain of the kingdom), and is summarized in the following sloka.

salye dharmasutaddhate kurubale parthaih samaste hate
bhimenanujasamyute vinihate duryodhane draunina |
suptanam nidhane krte nisi tato muktva vidherastratah
parthan rajyamitamsca tatsutasutam yo'patsa no'vyaddharih
$\Vert$ 28 $\Vert$

When Salya was slain by Dharmaraja;
When the entire Kaurava army was destroyed by Pandavas;
When Duryodhana was, along with all of his brothers, slain by Bhimasena;
Asvatthama killed all of the sleeping persons, including Dhrstadyumna,
in the tents of the Pandavas.
After this, when he discharged the Brahmastra;
The Lord saved the Pandavas and their grandson, Pariksit, from
the Brahmastra,
And established the Pandavas in their kingdom.
May this Lord Hari protect us.

The twenty-ninth chapter is called ``Samastadharmasangrahah'' (the summarizing of the entire dharma), and is summarized in the following sloka.

krsnabhyamapi bhusurairnrpasuto rajye'bhisikto dvijaih
dagdhe nindati bhiksuke khalatare svam vipratisaratah |
rajyam tyaktumathodyato vacanato yasyaptabhismattatah
susravakhiladharmanirnayamadah krsnadvayam dhimahi
$\Vert$ 29 $\Vert$

Dharmaraja was coronated as King of Hastinapura by the learned
brahmanas and both Krsnas (Krsnadvaipayana and Gopala Krsna);
When Charvaka came in the guise of a bhiksu and reprimanded Dharmaraja
that ``bhiksu'' was burned for his evil behavior by a curse of the brahmanas;
When Dharmaraja began to repent deeply for killing his teachers
and relatives in battle, and prepared to abandon the kingdom,
The Pandavas' beloved grandfather, Bhisma, by order of both Krsnas,
taught Dharmaraja various tenets of Dharmic principles.
I humbly meditate upon such Krsnas
(Krsnadvaipayana and Gopala Krsna).

The thirtieth chapter is called ``Yagasamaptih'' (the completion of the yaga), and is summarized in the following sloka.

smrtva yam dyusaritsuto vasurabhudraja yadasasito
nirduhkho'tha jugopa dharmanirato jitva svarajye kalim |
yah partham samabodhayat mrtasisum yo'jivayatpandavaih
yo yajñam sakarayat bahudhanaih dhyayami tam kesavam
$\Vert$ 30 $\Vert$

(Lord Kesava) by meditating upon whom the son of Akasaganga,
Bhisma returned to his position as one of the eight Vasus;
(Lord Kesava), by whose blessing, King Yudhisthira gave up all of his depression,
ruling over and protecting the kingdom by following the path of righteousness
and winning over the evil Kali in his kingdom;
(Lord Kesava) who gave a good sermon to Arjuna;
(Lord Kesava) who brought back to life the dead infant, Pariksit;
(Lord Kesava) who made Pandavas perform Asvamedha Yajña by utilizing
great wealth;
I meditate upon this Lord Kesava.

The thirty-first chapter is called ``Dhrtarastradisvargapraptih'' (the obtaining of heaven by Dhrtarastra, etc.), and is summarized in the following sloka.

yadyuktah panduputrah ksitimatha jugupuh dharmarajah tvaravan
dharme yatpritaye'bhut pavanajavacanairambikeyam viraktam |
vyasatma yo vanastham tvakrta nijamano'bhistavamtam gatam svam
natham parthah smaranto mumudurapi padam yasya krsnam tamide
$\Vert$ 31 $\Vert$

Pandavas ruled and protected the kingdom after the war,
with the aid of Krsna;
Dharmaraja performed religious ceremonies (such as Yajñas)
immediately and without delay, to please Krsna;
Bhimasena spoke words of wisdom to Dhrtarastra by the instigation
of the Lord, causing Dhrtarastra to retire to the forest
with detachment where, of his own free will,
Dhrtarastra returned to his position as a gandharva;
By meditating upon the Lord and His feet, the Pandavas rejoiced.
I extoll that Lord Krsna.

The thirty-second chapter is called ``Pandavasvargarohanam'' (the Pandavas' ascent to heaven), and is summarized in the following sloka.

yo yasta viprasapadyadukulamavadhit arthito'gat svalokam
devairbhaismyadyupeto yadanu nijapadam pandava apyavapuh |
daitya yaddvesato'ndhe tamasi nipatita buddharupo'bhavadyah
kalkyatmante kaleryah kujananidhanakrt patu so'sman mukundah
$\Vert$ 32 $\Vert$

The Lord performed Yajñas;
The Lord brought an end to the clan of Yadu,
using the curse of a brahmana as a pretext;
The Lord returned, praised by the gods, to His abode
in the company of Rukmini and other consorts;
The Pandavas, emulating Him, also went back to their respective abodes;
The demons who hated the Lord fell into eternal hell;
The Lord incarnated as Buddha to delude the undeserving;
The Lord will incarnate as Kalki at the end of Kali-yuga,
in order to destroy the evil ones;
May this Lord Mukunda protect us.

Finally, the glossator concludes his introduction:

mahabharatatatparyanirnayasayasangrahah |
raghavendrena yatina krtah sajjanasamvide

This summary of the purport of the Mahabharata-Tatparya-Nirnaya;
is composed by the saint Raghavendra, for the benefaction
of deserving people.

(Keshava Tadipatri & Thomas Head, with type-setting and editing by Shrisha Rao.)



Shrisha Rao